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Encoding is the process of transforming data from one format into another agreed-upon universal code system/scheme

Types of Encoding

  1. URL Encoding
  2. HTML Encoding
  3. Base 36/64 Encoding
  4. Unicode Encoding

URL Encoding

URL Encoding is a filter that converts certain characters of a URL into % and is followed by the hexadecimal equivalent of the character.


  • #:- %23
  • ?:- %3f
  • &:- %3f

HTML Encoding

The document transmitted via HTTP can send a charset parameter in the header containing Content-Type.

Content-Type:text/html; charset=utf-8

Base36/64 Encoding

Binary to Text encoding, in addition to Base16 encoding scheme Base36 and Base 64 are introduced.


It is the most case sensitive encoding scheme, as it contains all the numbers from[0-9] and latine letters [a-z]


Binary Base36
0001 1
1010 a


It is the most widespread encoding scheme, it allows the represent binary data into ASCII strings. Base64 is not an encryption technique. it contains [0-9], [a-z], [A-Z] and to complete the count of 64 + and slash / are added. it divides a string into 6bits.


Binary Base64
0000 A
011010 a
111110 +

Unicode Encoding

Unicode Encoding contains glyphs, numbers and etc.

There are three ways to map encode character points

  • UTF-8
  • UTF-16
  • UTF-32